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Analysis on the risk of Ebola
Author(s): Health Committee of the International Actuarial Association Source: Health Committee of the International Actuarial Association Year Published: 2015  
Summary: This is an analysis on an evaluation of the mortality and morbidity risk of Ebola to life and health insurance companies. The actuarial profession has played an active role in developing models and advising on the impact of epidemics on mortality and morbidity risks, particularly in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and beyond. Whilst this does not go to the same level of detail or sophistication, the aim of this high-level analysis is to assist actuaries working for or consulting with life or health insurance companies on evaluating the risk of an Ebola epidemic to their companies or clients. It is for information purposes only: the principles set out here are meant to be general and high level, and should not be regarded as actuarial advice. Every actuary should determine whether these principles are applicable to their specific circumstances.

New Zealand Health System Review
Author(s): Barr, Cumming, Daubé, Gerring, Martin, McDonald Source: World Health Organization on behalf of Asia Pacific and European Observatories on Health Systems and Policies Year Published: 2014  
Summary: The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of reform and policy initiatives in progress or under development in a specific country. Each profile is produced by country experts in collaboration with an international editor. In order to facilitate comparisons between countries, the profiles are based on a template, which is revised periodically. The template provides detailed guidelines and specific questions, definitions and examples needed to compile a HiT profile. The New Zealand HiT profile was updated in 2014.

Healthcare Systems: Germany
Author(s): Green, Irvin, Clarke, Bidgood Source: Civitas Year Published: 2013  
Summary: The German health care system has undergone a series of recent and controversial changes, implemented in an attempt to improve competition within the health sector and reduce its spiraling cost to the government. It remains to be seen whether the reforms will achieve those goals, but even if finance continues to be a problem for German health care, as it will for all countries suffering from economic difficulties and an ageing population, there are many aspects of the German health care system which work well. This report will therefore set out the key characteristics of German health care, exploring its recent improvements and highlighting areas that may be of interest to the NHS.

Health Care Costs—From Birth to Death
Author(s): Dale H. Yamamoto Source: Society of actuaries Year Published: 2013  
Summary: This study used commercial data held by the Health Care Cost Institute (HCCI) and Medicare free-for-service data to analyze health care costs differences by age and their contribution to overall health care cost change. The commercial data includes claims from 2002 through 2010 and the Medicare data includes claims from 2006 through 2010.
Author(s): Stephane Lever Source: Canadian Institute of Actuaries and Society of Actuaries Year Published: 2013  
Summary: The cost of the Canadian health care system has been increasing steadily with health care expenditures of provinces and territories over the last five years outpacing the annual rate of inflation by nearly 4 percent. The question of how to fund and even contain growing health care costs is the topic of significant discussion and debate in Canada. While Canadian provinces and territories are predominantly responsible for their own health care delivery, the federal government provides funding support through the Canada Health Transfer (CHT). The objective of this report is to estimate the future costs of the Canadian health care system, assess the sustainability of the system over a 25-year horizon, and analyze the implications of the changes to the CHT proposed on Dec. 19, 2011 by the federal government.

UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE Why health insurance schemes are leaving the poor behind
Author(s): Sanders, Di McIntyre, Chuma Source: Oxfam Year Published: 2013  
Summary: Universal health coverage (UHC) has the potential to transform the lives of millions of people by bringing life-saving health care to those who need it most. UHC means that all people get the treatment they need without fear of falling into poverty. Unfortunately, in the name of UHC, some donors and developing country governments are promoting health insurance schemes that exclude the majority of people and leave the poor behind. These schemes prioritize advantaged groups in the formal sector and drive up inequality. Rather than collecting contributions from people who are too poor to pay, the countries making most progress towards UHC have prioritized spending on health from general taxation – either on its own or pooled with formal sector payroll taxes and international aid. Donors and governments should abandon unworkable insurance schemes and focus on financing that works to deliver universal and equitable health care for all.

Financial Report for Private healthcare Insurance 2012
Author(s): Verband der Privaten Krankenversicherung e.V Source: Verband der Privaten Krankenversicherung e.V Year Published: 2013  
Summary: The financial report publishes the final business results for 2012. The figures presented in the report are derived for the most part from the Annual Reports of member companies.

Insurability in Microinsurance Markets: An Analysis of Problems and Potential Solutions
Author(s): Biener, Eling Source: Palgrave Macmillan Year Published: 2012  
Summary: This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the insurability of risks in microinsurance markets. Our aim is to enhance the understanding of impediments to and facilitators of microinsurance from an economic perspective and outline potential solutions. The motivation for conducting this analysis arises from two important aspects. (1) Despite strong growth of microinsurance markets in recent years, more than 90 per cent of the poor population in developing countries have limited or no access to insurance. (2) Industry practitioners frequently highlight problems in the insurability of risks that hinder the development of microinsurance. We review 131 papers and find that the most severe problems stem from insufficient resources for risk evaluation, small size of insurance groups, information asymmetries and the size of the insurance premium. On the basis of the analysis, we discuss a number of potential solutions such as, for example, a cooperative microinsurance architecture.

Protecting the poor A microinsurance compendium
Author(s): Craig Churchil (Editor) Source: International Labour Office Year Published: 2012  
Summary: Twenty five case studies were conducted, analyzing the experiences of more than 40 organizations that are involved in microinsurance either as a risk carrier, distribution channel or both. Examples form the case studies are sprinkled liberally throughout this book to illustrate lessons and recommendations.

The role of risk adjustment in the equitable financing of National Health Insurance in South Africa
Author(s): Heather McLeod Source: University of Otago. Department of Public Health Year Published: 2012  
Summary: A National Health Insurance system has been proposed for South Africa and two of the seven guiding principles are that there be social solidarity and equity. These will require both risk cross-subsidies and income cross-subsidies to be engineered into the health care financing system. This paper considers the need for risk adjustment at a provincial level using at least age, gender and HIV prevalence. The proposed single purchaser model with 52 purchasing districts is shown to be problematic. An alternative multiple purchaser model is proposed which includes existing health funds and employer-based health care arrangements. The role of risk adjustment is described at various levels of the system and it is demonstrated that equity and social solidarity can be achieved in a multiple purchaser system. AVAILABLE FOR PURCHASE ONLY.

Pricing in Microinsurance Markets
Author(s): Christian Biener Source: Institute of Insurance Economics University of St Gallen Year Published: 2011  
Summary: Microinsurance markets have exhibited strong growth rates in recent years. Great parts of the industry are, however, challenged by fundamental issues of providing insurance products, one of the most significant of which is pricing risk. In this paper, we provide a nontechnical analysis of insurance pricing problems and a review of the set of opportunities that can address some of the specific pricing constraints in microinsurance markets. A key contribution of this paper is the investigation of conventional techniques as potential solutions for improving the pricing of insurance risk in microinsurance markets.

Obesity and its Relation to Mortality and Morbidity Costs
Author(s): Behan, Cox et al Source: Society of Actuaries Year Published: 2010  
Summary: There is substantial evidence that obesity is a worldwide epidemic and that it has a significant negative impact on health, mortality and related costs. Overweight and obesity are associated with increased prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and some cancers. There is also evidence that increased weight is associated with kidney disease, stroke, osteoarthritis and sleep apnea. Moreover, empirical studies report that obesity significantly increases the risk of death.

Evaluating the impact of an Avian Flu epidemic in South Africa: What is the potential cost of excess deaths to the Life Insurance Industry?
Author(s): L. McLaren, P. Lewis Source: Actuarial Society of South Africa Year Published: 2006  
Summary: This paper investigates the potential impact of an Avian Flu epidemic on the South African life insurance market. Various scenarios are investigated to examine how key factors such as infection and mortality rates impact the cost of an epidemic to the insurance industry. Individual and group life markets are considered separately

The Potential demographic impact of an avian flu pandemic in south africa
Author(s): Stipp, Staples, Hamman and Van der Merwe Source: Actuarial Society of South Africa Year Published: 2006  
Summary: This paper examines the potential demographic impact of an influenza pandemic in South Africa. There were three distinct flu pandemics in the 20th century (1918, 1957 and 1968). The first of these pandemic was the most devastating. We investigated the demographic effect of a similar pandemic in South Africa. Our approach was to model the pandemic using a multi-state model adjusted for certain demographic characteristics. Whilst it was difficult to obtain actual data to parameterise the model, we used empirical evidence to ensure that our model produced sensible results. We also investigated other potential scenarios, with less severe pandemics.

Assessing the Impact of a Pandemic on the Life Insurance Industry in South Africa
Author(s): Andre Dreyer, Grete Kritzinger. Jethro de Decker Source: Actuarial Society of South Africa Year Published: 2006  
Summary: In this report, the authors investigate the history of pandemics; with a particular focus on influenza (flu) 3 pandemics. They attempt to understand the frequency of such pandemics and assess the industry’s readiness for another pandemic. In doing so, they revisit the most severe pandemic recorded in human history – the Spanish Flu of 1918 – and they investigate responses from the industry when questioned about its levels of preparedness. Their paper also attempts to quantify the potential impact of such a pandemic on the life insurance industry. Although the paper suggests a possible distribution of pandemic disease incidence and case fatality rates for the insured population, and how this differs from that of the general population, it assumes the appropriateness of epidemiological modelling for the South African population already done by other writers.

Private Compulsory Long-Term Care Insurance in Germany
Author(s): Helga Riedel Source: International Association for the study of Insurance Economics Year Published: 2003  
Summary: This paper gives a brief outline of the history of compulsory long-term care insurance in Germany and the special legal features. Then the calculation is explained, both for new business and with regard to adjusting the premiums for business in force. The third part is devoted to the pooling system in the private compulsory long-term care insurance which is necessary with regard to the transfer-system.